Bonneville Salt Flats
Imagine a place so flat you
seem to see the curvature of the planet, so barren not even the simplest
life forms can exist. Imagine the passing thunder of strange vehicles
hurtling by on a vast, dazzling white plain. This is to an alien world
far from earth; it is Utah's famous Bonneville Salt Flats.
Racing for Speed
The Salt Flat's potential for
racing was first recognized in 1896 by W.D. Rishel who was scouting a
bicycle race course from New York to San Francisco. Rishel returned and
convinced daredevil Teddy Tezlaff to attempt an automobile speed record on
the flats. Tezlaff drive a Blitzen Benz 141.73 m.p.h. to set an unofficial
record in 1914.
Ancient Lake Bonneville
Although he never visited the salt flats, the area is named in honor of Captain B. L. E. Bonneville, whose expeditions in the 1830s proved the area was a part of the ancient basin.
During the last Ice Age, about 15,000 years ago, Lake Bonneville was the size of Lake Michigan. It covered one-third of present day Utah and parts of neighboring states. You can see traces of the shorelines, representing different levels of the receding lake, etched into the mountains surrounding the salt flats.
The Bonneville Salt Flats and the Great Salt Lake are remnants of ancient Lake Bonneville. Wind and water combine to create the flat surface of salt. Each winter, a shallow layer of standing water floods the surface of the salt flats. During spring and summer, the water slowly evaporates while winds smooth the surface into a vast, nearly perfect, flat plain.
The salt surface contains potassium, magnesium lithium, and sodium chloride (common table salt).
A Barrier of Salt
Humans have lived in the Great Basin for thousands of years. Excavations at nearby Danger Cave have proven occupation of the area as early as 10,300 years ago. While Native Americans adapted to the desert environment, more recent arrivals found the area less hospitable.
By 1824, Jim Bridger and other mountain men explored the Great Salt Lake desert region. The first recorded crossing of the desert was made in 1845 by Captain John C. Fremont's survey party with scouts Kit Carson and Joe Walker. Early the next year, 23 year old Lansford Hastings retraced Fremont's train across the salt plain. Joe Walker's writings warned emigrants not to attempt the untried route, however, Hastings convinced several emigrant parties to follow him.
Despite Walker's warnings, the Donner-Reed party, seeking a shortcut to California in 1846, attempted the "Hastings' Cutoff." They failed to take enough water and lost a critical number of oxen. Four of their wagons were abandoned just 10 miles northeast of the salt flats. Time was lost, and the delay resulted in their late arrival to the Sierra Nevada Mountains and their tragic winter.
Late, in 1910, the first permanent crossing of the Bonneville Salt Flats was completed when the southern Pacific Railroad was built linking Salt Lake City and San Francisco.
Typically, speed trials are scheduled throughout the summer and fall. The events are open to the public. For more information, contact the Bureau of Land Management, Salt Lake Field Office at (801) 977-4300.
Visiting the Salt Flats
The Bonneville Salt Flats is administered by the Bureau of Land Management for public use and enjoyment. Due to its unique geology, history, and scenic beauty, the Bonneville Salt Flats was designated an Area of Critical Environmental Concern in 1985.
Help Preserve the Bonneville Salt Flats
Stay on existing roads or areas designated for vehicles. Despite the appearance of a hard surface, much of the area is a thin salt crust over soft mud. It easily breaks under the weight of a vehicle.
Stay off the salt surface when it is covered by water. When wet, the salt surface is soft and easily damaged by vehicles. Furthermore, the salt water is highly corrosive and can short-out the electrical system in your vehicle.
Be prepared for desert conditions. Temperatures can exceed 100 degrees in the summer and drop well below 0 in the winter.
There are no facilities nor services on the salt flats. Temporary facilities are available during racing events.
Overnight stays are prohibited on the salt flats. Camping is encouraged on surrounding public lands. Private campgrounds and hookups are available in nearby Wendover, ten miles west of the Bonneville Salt Flats. Other accommodations and services are also available in Wendover.
For Additional Information Contact:
Bureau of Land Management
For more information visit the Utah Bureau of Land Management website